The Finns

Index Home

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | V | W

 

A

"Adventure of a Sailor and the Result, The" (Atwood), F 35
African Americans
     Cape Verde Island immigrants, F 99–100

    Aittaniemi, Carl, F 116
    Aittaniemi, John, F 109
    Aittaniemi, Matti (Martin Atwood), F 35, F 109, F 116, F 124, F 135
    Aittaniemi, Neilo, F 135
    Aittaniemi, Sophia, F 135
    Albrecht, Dennis G., F 23, F 27, F 68, F 100
    alcohol
         fines for use of, F 62
         Finnish immigrants and, F 54, F 112–113, F 144–145

      Altonen, Kerttu, F 116
      Altonen, Pentti, F 116
      Atwood, Frederick A., F 134
           "Adventure of a Sailor and the Result, The," ,F 35
           "Estimate of Education Received by First and Second Generation of Finns," ,F 97–98
           "Finnish Sauna (Steam Bath), The," ,F 89–92
           "First Generation of Finns School Drop-Outs," ,F 95–96
           "General History of the Life of the Finns as I know It," ,F 36–56
           "Grocery Store: East End of West Barnstable," ,F 86–87
           "Joseph Zachary Fernandes," ,F 99–100
           "Maple Street Rukous Huone (Maple Street Prayer Chapel), F 60–61
           memories of Finnish immigrants by, F 109–111, F 114–115, F 118, F 119, F 120, F 123–124
           photograph, F 114
           "Reliance Green and Peter Inmanson," ,F 88
           "Some of the History of Alexander Michelson as narrated to me by Emil Lundquist," ,F 85
           "West Barnstable Suomalaisten Lähetys Seurakunta (Finnish Congregational Church)", F 65–66

        Atwood, John, F 45–46
        Atwood, Martin, F 35. See also Aittaniemi, Matti (Martin Atwood)
        Atwood, Neil, F 85

          B

          Barnstable Shellfisherman's Association, F 93–94, F 113, F 124
          "Barnstable Shellfisherman's Association Trust" (Atwood), F 93–94
          Bartell, Joseph
               photograph, F 156–157

            Bartell, Olga
                 photograph, F 156–157

              Bednark, Eleanor (Elna), F 119–120
              Bednark, Tom, F 159
              Benttinen, William, F 14
              Bodensiek, Fred
                   "Melting Pot: The Finns," ,F 114–126

                Brett, Elise
                     "Cape Cod's Finnish History is Mainly an Oral One," ,F 31
                     "History of Finns of Cape Traced--Orally," ,F 32

                  Brickyard Inn, F 143–144
                  Broadhurst, Francis, F 160
                  Brown, Forest R., F 23

                  C

                  Cahoon, Aune M., F 117
                       photograph, F 116, F 156–157

                  Cape Cod Canal
                       Finnish immigrant employment on, F 141

                    "Cape Cod Finns, The," ,F 27–30
                    "Cape Cod's Finnish History is Mainly an Oral One" (Brett), F 32
                    "Cape Scenery Attracts Finns" (Skinner), F 22–23
                    Cape Verde Islands
                         immigrants from, F 99–100

                      Carlson, Ruth (Mrs. J. Frederick)
                           "Finnish People of West Barnstable, The," ,F 24

                        carpentry
                             by Finnish immigrants, F 32, F 110

                          Chambers, Martha
                               photograph, F 156–157

                            Chapel, Maple Street, F 44
                            Christmas
                                 Finnish menu, F 188
                                 Finnish traditions, F 25–26

                              clam digging
                                   by Finnish immigrants, F 31, F45–46, F 113, F 124, F 141

                                clam market, F 93–94
                                coffee braid (nisu), F 117, F 194
                                "Color Us a Saintly Purple" (Murrell), F 184–185
                                Congregational Church, West Parish. See West Parish Meeting House (Congregational Church)
                                cranberry bogs
                                     Finnish immigrant workers, F 12–13, F 26, F 31, F 109, F 114, F 136–138
                                          photograph, F 155

                                    Crane, Lexa, F 190
                                    Crocker, Franklin, F 12
                                    Crocker, John, F 87
                                    Crocker, John H., & Sons, store, F 124
                                    Cusick, Martha
                                         untitled article on Finnish immigrants, F 108–113

                                      Cygnaeus, Uno, F 10

                                      D

                                      day labor
                                           Finnish immigrant employment, F 140

                                        "Dice Shooters Deny Gambling, but Pay Fines," ,F 14
                                        Dooley, Emily C.
                                             "Steamy Affairs," ,F 197–201

                                          Douglas, William, F 22, F 23, F 27, F 28

                                          E

                                          Eastman, Peggy
                                               "Keeping Faith With Their Past," ,F 158–159

                                            education
                                                 drop-out rates, F 95–96
                                                 of first generation Finns, F 95–96, F 97–98
                                                 of second generation Finns, F 97–98
                                                 valued by Finnish-Americans, F 193

                                              Engle, Eloise, F 116, F 117
                                              Eskelinen, Siiri E. (Mrs.), F 57
                                              "Estimate of Education Received by First and Second Generation of Finns" (Atwood), F 97–98
                                              Evangelical Lutheran Church
                                                   establishment of, F 23
                                                   history of, F 69

                                                F

                                                Fernandes, Joseph Zachary
                                                     biographical information, F 99–100

                                                  Field, Harvey, F 85
                                                  Finland
                                                       Cape Cod similarities, F 22
                                                       country overview, F 19, F 117, F 128–129
                                                       crop failure in, F 2, F 4, F 10, F 15, F 131, F 132
                                                       culture, F 19, F 117
                                                       history of, F 31
                                                       independence celebration, F 160, F 161
                                                       industry deregulation, F 130–131
                                                       literacy in, F 49–51
                                                       national coat of arms, F 162
                                                       relationship with U.S., F 169–170
                                                       relief for (1940), F 174
                                                       Russia and, F 2–3, F 5, F 8–9, F 19, F 50–51, F 108, F 129–130
                                                       social class in, F 51–52
                                                       Sweden and, F 128–129, F 165–168

                                                    Finn-Funn Weekend (2001), F 196
                                                    Finnish-American Society, F 158
                                                         Finland independence celebration, F 160, F 161

                                                      Finnish Congregational church, F 16, F 22, F 123–124
                                                           Maple Street Chapel, F 60–61, F 102, F 112, F 123

                                                        Finnish Congregational churches, F 8
                                                        Finnish culture
                                                             celebration of, F 158–159
                                                             Christmas traditions, F 25–26
                                                             menus, F 188
                                                             New Year's traditions, F 31
                                                             St. Urho legend, F 154, F 176–189

                                                          Finnish food
                                                               Christmas traditions, F 26
                                                               nisu (coffee braid), F 117
                                                               St. Urho Day menu, F 188
                                                               types of, F 195

                                                            Finnish Friendship Service, F 174
                                                            Finnish immigrants/Finnish ancestors
                                                                 adjustment of, F 15, F 31, F 37–38, F 113, F 144–146
                                                                 alcohol and, F 15, F 54, F 112–113, F 144–145
                                                                 as American citizens, F 6–8
                                                                 in American colonial history, F 163–170
                                                                 appeal of Cape Cod to, F 114, F 135–137, F 195
                                                                 on Cape Cod, F 11–13, F 15–18, F 22–23, F 26, F 31–32, F 33–34, F 36–56, F 193, F 195
                                                                 Cape Cod Canal construction by, F 141
                                                                 carpentry by, F 32, F 110
                                                                 celebration of Finnish tradition by, F 158–159
                                                                 celebration of settlement by, F 174
                                                                 children's toys, F 47–48
                                                                 churches, F 7–8
                                                                 clam digging by, F 31, F 45–46, F 113, F 124, F 141
                                                                 cranberry bog employment, F 12–13, F 15, F 22, F 26, F 31, F 109, F 114, F 136–138
                                                                      photograph, F 155
                                                                 criticism of, F 144
                                                                 cultural background, F 19
                                                                 day labor work, F 140
                                                                 drug use by, F 54
                                                                 employment in U.S., F 6–7
                                                                 exploitation of, F 52
                                                                 family responsibilities, F 44, F 46–48, F 110–111, F 140
                                                                 fishing by, F 48
                                                                 gambling by, F 14
                                                                 health of, F 9
                                                                 house purchases, F 36
                                                                 individualism of, F 39, F 46, F 50, F 114
                                                                 itinerant preachers, F 39
                                                                 from Karstula, F 15, F 123
                                                                 land ownership by, F 135–136
                                                                 literacy of, F 49–51
                                                                 local population and, F 136
                                                                 logging by, F 139
                                                                 Lutheran church and, F 7–8, F 43
                                                                 marriage records, F 79–80
                                                                 married women, F 139
                                                                 name changes, F 119, F 124, F 126, F 141
                                                                 naturalization of, F 10, F 37, F 82, F 124
                                                                 numbers of, F 132–133
                                                                 occupations of, F 12–13, F 22, F 24, F 45, F 55, F 116, F 138–142, F 195
                                                                 oral history of, F 31–32
                                                                 original, F 22
                                                                 patriotism of, F 37
                                                                 prejudice against other nationalities by, F 52–53
                                                                 railroad employment, F 140–141
                                                                 reasons for emigrating, F 2–3, F 4, F 10, F 22, F 37, F 50, F 108, F 129–132
                                                                 religion, F 15–18, F 22–23, F 39–40, F 43–44, F 145–146
                                                                 return to Finland by, F 9
                                                                 sauna baths, F 24, F 89–92, F 111, F 117
                                                                 school drop-out rates, F 95–96
                                                                 sense of community, F 158–159
                                                                 settlement in U.S., F 10
                                                                 shellfishing by, F 45
                                                                 as silent, F 118
                                                                 single women, F 139, F 143
                                                                 socialists, F 18
                                                                 socialization of, F 63, F 123
                                                                 timber employment, F 22
                                                                 tool sharpening by, F 48
                                                                 voyage to U.S., F 133–134
                                                                 in West Barnstable, F 13, F 24, F 35, F 108–113
                                                                 West Barnstable Brickyard employment, F 35, F 109, F 138–139, F 143–144
                                                                 work ethic, F 44, F 55, F 96, F 118

                                                              "Finnish Immigrants on Cape Cod: Why They Came and Why They Stayed" (Jeffries), F 127–151
                                                              Finnish language, F 10, F 19, F 31
                                                                   declining use of, F 56
                                                                   enjoyment in speaking, F 53
                                                                   Finglish, F 117
                                                                   First Lutheran Church use of, F 69, F 76, F 77
                                                                   literacy in, F 49–50, F 158
                                                                   prevalence of, F 36, F 39, F 115, F 118, F 144
                                                                   Rauhan Alku Seura and, F 63
                                                                   use of, F 41

                                                                Finnish Library, Sandwich, MA, F 57
                                                                     rules, F 58–59

                                                                  Finnish Lutheran Church, F 159. See also First Lutheran Church of West Barnstable
                                                                       history of, F 195

                                                                    Finnish Lutheran churches, F 7–8. See also Lutheran Church of West Barnstable
                                                                         branches of, F 10
                                                                         establishment on Cape Cod, F 16

                                                                      Finnish Lutheran Evangelical Apostolic Church, F 17–18, F 43, F 112, F 123
                                                                           congregation, F 78
                                                                           purchase of Raittius Haali (Temperance Hall) by, F 63, F 78 

                                                                        Finnish Lutheran Society, F 32
                                                                        "Finnish People of West Barnstable, The" (Carlson), F 24
                                                                        "Finnish Sauna (Steam Bath, The)" (Atwood), F 89–92
                                                                        Finnish societies, F 152–153
                                                                        Finnish Sunday school, F 44
                                                                        Finnish Temperance Society. See Temperance Society
                                                                        Finnish Tercentenary ball, F 173
                                                                        "Finns as American Citizens, The" (McClure), F 6–8
                                                                        "Finns Had Their Own Christmas, Down on Plum Street," ,F 25–26
                                                                        Finns in America, The (Engle), F 116, F 117
                                                                        "Finns in American Colonial History, The" (Hook), F 163–170
                                                                        "Finns in the United States (Lessons in Patriotism)", F 10
                                                                        "Finns Just Want to Have 'Funn'" (Maroney), F 196
                                                                        "Finns on Cape Cod" (Van Cleef), F 11–13
                                                                        "Finns on Cape Cod, The" (Ollila), F 15–18
                                                                        "Finn Town," ,F 24, F 78, F 108, F 158
                                                                             historic houses, F 192
                                                                             map, F 191

                                                                            "First Generation of Finns School Drop-Outs" (Atwood), F 95–96
                                                                            First Lutheran Church of West Barnstable, F 123. See also Finnish Lutheran Church
                                                                                 altar (photograph), F 158
                                                                                 altar construction, F 159
                                                                                 charter members, F 68, F 72–73
                                                                                 confirmation class (photograph), F 105–107
                                                                                 construction of, F 27, F 112
                                                                                 cultural heritage and, F 17
                                                                                 Finland independence celebration, F 160
                                                                                 Finnish language use in, F 69, F 76
                                                                                 history, F 67, F 69–70, F 72–77, F 195
                                                                                 membership, F 23, F 26, F 159
                                                                                 merger with Lutheran Church in America, F 17, F 69
                                                                                 pastors, F 70, F 73–75
                                                                                 photograph, F 72, F 101, F 123
                                                                                 50th anniversary, F 71

                                                                              First Parish Congregational Church Sunday School, F 44
                                                                              fishing
                                                                                   by Finnish immigrants, F 48

                                                                                Fisk, Ellen, F 87
                                                                                Fisk, Leonard, F 86, F 87
                                                                                Fisk, P., & Sons, Grocers, F 52–53, F 85, F 86–87, F 124
                                                                                     credit system, F 87, F 124

                                                                                  Fisk, Pekka, F 60, F 86–87, F 124
                                                                                  Fisk, Peter, F 81, F 140
                                                                                  Flinkgelt, Jacob, F 142–143
                                                                                  Fritze, Hattie Blossom, F 116

                                                                                  G

                                                                                  gambling
                                                                                       by Finnish immigrants, F 14

                                                                                    "General History of the Life of the Finns as I know It" (Atwood), F 36–56
                                                                                    Great Depression
                                                                                         Fisk, P., & Sons credit system and, F 87, F 124

                                                                                      Green, Reliance, F 88
                                                                                      grocery store, F 86–87
                                                                                           Finnish ownership of, F 124

                                                                                        "Grocery Store: East End of West Barnstable" (Atwood), F 86–87
                                                                                        Groop, Andrew, F 16, F 22, F 39, F 120
                                                                                        Groop, Henry, F 22–23
                                                                                        Gustafson, Thorsten, F 160

                                                                                        H

                                                                                        halibut
                                                                                             100-pound catch (photograph), F 21

                                                                                        Hall, Wendy, F 118
                                                                                        Hautanen, David, F 116
                                                                                        Heideman Lutheran Church, F 18
                                                                                        "He's the Prafest Finn," ,F 185
                                                                                        high school drop-out rates
                                                                                             of first-generation Finns, F 95–96

                                                                                        Hill, Amelia (Ma), F 119, F 120
                                                                                        Hill, Irene, F 119–120
                                                                                        Hill, Lillian, F 119–120
                                                                                        Hill, Miriam, F 119
                                                                                        Hill, Nestor, F 119, F 120
                                                                                             100-pound halibut (photograph), F 21

                                                                                        Hill family, F 119–120
                                                                                        Hill's Dining Room, F 119
                                                                                        "History of Finns of Cape Traced--Orally" (Brett), F 32
                                                                                        Hook, Frank E.
                                                                                             "Finns in American Colonial History, The," ,F 163–170

                                                                                        Horse and Buggy Days on Old Cape Cod (Fritze), F 116
                                                                                        horse barge (school bus)
                                                                                             photograph, F 84

                                                                                        Hudson, Bertha Salo, F 116
                                                                                             photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                          Hutchenrider, Linda Pukki, F 198
                                                                                          Hyvonen, Ida
                                                                                               photograph, F 112

                                                                                            Hyvonen, Wille
                                                                                                 photograph, F 112

                                                                                            I

                                                                                            "Immigrants Gave West Barnstable a Bright Finnish" (Lynch), F 195
                                                                                            "Immigration of Finns" (Wiinikainen), F 33–34
                                                                                            Inmanson, Peter, F 88

                                                                                            J

                                                                                            Jarvi, Pauline, F 195, F 196
                                                                                                 photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                              Jeffries, Kathleen
                                                                                                   "Finnish Immigrants on Cape Cod: Why They Came and Why They Stayed," ,F 127–151

                                                                                                Jenkins, Elizabeth, F 114
                                                                                                Jenkins, Gilbert, F 63
                                                                                                Johnson, Henry and Rosa, F 24
                                                                                                Johnson, John, F 159
                                                                                                "Joseph Zachary Fernandes" (Atwood), F 99–100

                                                                                                K

                                                                                                Kantola, Carl, F 134
                                                                                                Kantola, Mattias, F 134
                                                                                                Kantola, Vilhelmiina Yaakotytar, F 134
                                                                                                Karnialo, Tauno, F 116
                                                                                                Karstula Finns
                                                                                                     settlement on Cape Cod, F 15, F 123

                                                                                                  Kaski, Kirsti
                                                                                                       photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                    Kaski, Terho
                                                                                                         photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                      "Keeping Faith With Their Past" (Eastman), F 158–159
                                                                                                      Keith Car Works, F 141
                                                                                                      Kennedy, John F., F 125
                                                                                                      Kennedy, Joseph P., F 125
                                                                                                      Kiusalas, Barbara, F 198
                                                                                                           photograph, F 200, F 201

                                                                                                        Kiusalas, Dick, F 198
                                                                                                             photograph, F 200, F 201

                                                                                                          Kokkanen, William, F 116
                                                                                                          Kokko, William, F 124
                                                                                                          Koponen, George, F 40
                                                                                                          Krokvik, Michel, F 124
                                                                                                          Krook, Frances, F 116
                                                                                                          Kyllonen, Edwin, F 160
                                                                                                          Kyllonen, Kerttu, F 160
                                                                                                               photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                            Kyllonen, Miriam, F 160

                                                                                                            L

                                                                                                            Laestadian Lutheran Church, F 17–18, F 159. See also First Lutheran Church of West Barnstable
                                                                                                            Lähetyskirkko (congregational) church, F 16
                                                                                                            Lahtein, Francis, F 160
                                                                                                            Lahteine, Edna, F 118
                                                                                                            Lahteine, Evelyn, F 118, F 158
                                                                                                            Lahteine, Francis A., F 116, F 117–118, F 154
                                                                                                            Lahteine, Inez, F 118
                                                                                                            Lahteine, John E., F 23, F 28, F 83, F 118
                                                                                                                 photograph, F 30

                                                                                                            Lahteine, Olga, F 118
                                                                                                            Lampi, Tauno and Reino, F 46
                                                                                                            Lans, Ahti
                                                                                                                 photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                            Lans, Genevieve
                                                                                                                 photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                              Lanskala, John, F 35, F 109, F 116
                                                                                                              Leeman, Carl, F 81
                                                                                                              Leeman, Victor
                                                                                                                   biographical summary, F 81
                                                                                                                   photograph, F 84

                                                                                                              "Legend of St. Urho is Re-Written as a Children's Bedtime Story" (Lindahl), F 187
                                                                                                              lightships, F 142–143
                                                                                                              Lindahl, Dorita
                                                                                                                   "Legend of St. Urho is Re-Written as a Children's Bedtime Story," ,F 187

                                                                                                              Lindgren, Ellen
                                                                                                                   photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                              logging
                                                                                                                   by Finnish immigrants, F 139

                                                                                                              Luksanen, Herman, F 142
                                                                                                              Lundquist, Albert Frank, F 15, F 33, F 108, F 114
                                                                                                              Lundquist, Emil, F 13, F 15, F 123
                                                                                                              Lundquist, Fredriika, F 33, F 114
                                                                                                              Lundquist, Fredrike, F 15
                                                                                                              Lutheran Church
                                                                                                                   Apostolic, F 17–18
                                                                                                                   construction of, F 43
                                                                                                                   Heideman, F 18
                                                                                                                   importance to Finnish immigrants, F 7–8, F 43
                                                                                                                   Laestadian, F 17–18
                                                                                                                   Michelson, F 18

                                                                                                              Lutheran Church (Suomi Synod), F 16–17, F 76

                                                                                                              Lutheran Church of West Barnstable
                                                                                                                   establishment of, F 16
                                                                                                                   joins Suomi Synod, F 17, F 76
                                                                                                                   membership, F 17

                                                                                                              Lynch, Brad
                                                                                                                   "Immigrants Gave West Barnstable a Bright Finnish," ,F 195

                                                                                                                                M

                                                                                                                                "Maamme," ,F 161
                                                                                                                                Makepeace, A. D., Co., F 85, F 86
                                                                                                                                     company store, F 49–50, F 85, F 109, F 124, F 141

                                                                                                                                  Makepeace, Abel D., F 33, F 65–66
                                                                                                                                       cranberry bogs, F 12–13, F 24, F 109, F 114, F 138
                                                                                                                                       West Barnstable Brick Co., F 138

                                                                                                                                    Maki, Frank, F 124

                                                                                                                                    Maki, Frank, F 124
                                                                                                                                    Maki, Johanna, F 134
                                                                                                                                    Maki, Johannes, F 134, F 141
                                                                                                                                    Manni, Lauri, F 14
                                                                                                                                    "Maple Street Rukous Huone (Maple Street Prayer Chapel) (Atwood), F 60–61
                                                                                                                                    Maple Street Rukous Huone (Prayer Chapel), F 112, F 123
                                                                                                                                         construction crew (photograph), F 102
                                                                                                                                         establishment of, F 60
                                                                                                                                         sale of, F 61
                                                                                                                                         uses of, F 60–61

                                                                                                                                    Maroney, Edward F.
                                                                                                                                         "Finns Just Want to Have 'Funn'", F 196

                                                                                                                                      marriage records
                                                                                                                                           Finnish, F 79–80

                                                                                                                                      McClure, W. Frank
                                                                                                                                           "Finns as American Citizens, The," ,F 6–9

                                                                                                                                        McLoughlin, Carol
                                                                                                                                             photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                          McLoughlin, Viola
                                                                                                                                               photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                            Meadows, Martha, F 160
                                                                                                                                            "Melting Pot: The Finns" (Bodensiek), F 114–126
                                                                                                                                            Mencken, H. L., F 117
                                                                                                                                            Michelson, A., general store, F 86–87, F 113, F 124
                                                                                                                                            Michelson, Alexander (Aleks) (Perkaus), F 33, F 113, F 124, F 126, F 141, F 193
                                                                                                                                                 biographical summary, F 85, F 86–87

                                                                                                                                            Michelson Lutheran Church, F 18
                                                                                                                                            Michelson's Garage, F 85, F 113
                                                                                                                                            Mikkonen, Salme
                                                                                                                                                 photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                              Moore, Mabel, F 78
                                                                                                                                              Morton, John, F 171–172, F 185
                                                                                                                                              Morton, John (misprinted as Milton), F 195
                                                                                                                                              Murray, Velma
                                                                                                                                                   photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                Murrell, John
                                                                                                                                                     "Color Us a Saintly Purple," ,F 184–185

                                                                                                                                                        N

                                                                                                                                                        Nelson, Elna Ruska, F 124–125, F 158
                                                                                                                                                             photograph, F 125, F 159

                                                                                                                                                          Nelson, Gordon S., F 159
                                                                                                                                                          New Otis Hall, F 65–66
                                                                                                                                                          New Sweden colony, F 165–170
                                                                                                                                                          Nicholas II, F 2–3, F 129
                                                                                                                                                          Nickula, Walter, F 14
                                                                                                                                                          nisu (coffee braid), F 117, F 194

                                                                                                                                                          O

                                                                                                                                                          "Ode to St. Urho," ,F 185, F 186
                                                                                                                                                          Ojala, Arne, F 116
                                                                                                                                                          Ojala, Martha, F 116
                                                                                                                                                          Ollila, Douglas J., Jr., F 22, F 123
                                                                                                                                                               "Finns on Cape Cod, The," ,F 15–18

                                                                                                                                                            Otis Hall, F 65, F 123

                                                                                                                                                                  P

                                                                                                                                                                  Pajunen, Maire, F 158–159
                                                                                                                                                                       photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                                    Pajunen, Tauno
                                                                                                                                                                         photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                                      Peltonen, Iivari and Mathilda, F 78
                                                                                                                                                                      Peltonen, Ivar and Karin, F 78, F 83
                                                                                                                                                                      Peltonen, Joseph (Pelton)
                                                                                                                                                                           biographical summary, F 83

                                                                                                                                                                        Perkaus, Alexander, F 141. See Michelson, Alexander (Aleks) (Perkaus)
                                                                                                                                                                        Perkins, Helen
                                                                                                                                                                             photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                                          Perry, Henry, F 14
                                                                                                                                                                          Portuguese language, F 53
                                                                                                                                                                          Prittinen, Matti, F 34
                                                                                                                                                                          Prittinen, Niilo, F 197
                                                                                                                                                                          Prittinen, Niklas, F 24, F 33, F 35, F 109, F 116, F 118, F 134, F 135
                                                                                                                                                                          Prittinen, Olga, F 24, F 135
                                                                                                                                                                          Prittinen, Rosa, F 33. See also Wiinikainen, Rosa Prittinen
                                                                                                                                                                          Pukki, Kauko, F 116

                                                                                                                                                                            R

                                                                                                                                                                            railroad
                                                                                                                                                                                 Finnish immigrant employment with, F 140–141

                                                                                                                                                                              Raintainen, Amelia, F 119
                                                                                                                                                                              Raittius Haali (Temperance Hall). See Temperance Hall (Raittius Haali)
                                                                                                                                                                              Raittius Seura (Temperance Society). See Temperance Society (Raittius Seura or Rauhan Alku Seura)
                                                                                                                                                                              Ranta, Taisto E., F 116, F 118, F 197–199
                                                                                                                                                                              Ranta, Ty
                                                                                                                                                                                   photograph, F 115

                                                                                                                                                                                Rantanen, Eriki, F 16
                                                                                                                                                                                Rapo, Kerttu, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                Rapo, Seppo, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                Rapo, Tauno, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                Rauhan Alku Seura (Society for the Commencement of Tranquility), F 62–63, F145, F 193
                                                                                                                                                                                "Rauhan Alku Seura (Society for the Commencement of Tranquility)" (Atwood), F 62–63, F 112
                                                                                                                                                                                Rauhan Alku Seura (Temperance Society). See Temperance Society (Raittius Seura or Rauhan Alku Seura)
                                                                                                                                                                                "Reliance Green and Peter Inmanson" (Atwood), F 88
                                                                                                                                                                                Revere, Paul
                                                                                                                                                                                     West Parish Meeting House bell, F 23

                                                                                                                                                                                  Rintela, Hilma, F 33
                                                                                                                                                                                  Rintela, Ida, F 33
                                                                                                                                                                                  Rintela, John and Mahastiina, F 33
                                                                                                                                                                                  Rosvall, Toivo, F 118
                                                                                                                                                                                  Rusher, Robert, F 119
                                                                                                                                                                                  Ruska, David J., F 124–125
                                                                                                                                                                                       photograph, F 29, F 125

                                                                                                                                                                                    Ruska, Victor, F 125
                                                                                                                                                                                    Ruska, William, F 125
                                                                                                                                                                                    Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                         Finland and, F 2–3, F 4, F 5, F 8–9, F 19, F 50–51, F 108, F 129–130

                                                                                                                                                                                            S

                                                                                                                                                                                            Saari, Omni
                                                                                                                                                                                                 photograph, F 29

                                                                                                                                                                                              Salo, Carl, F 22, F 97, F 116, F 117
                                                                                                                                                                                              Salo, Hekki, F 22
                                                                                                                                                                                              Sarkinen, John, F 83
                                                                                                                                                                                              saunas, F 89–92, F 111, F 187
                                                                                                                                                                                                   community bathing, F 90–92
                                                                                                                                                                                                   design of, F 89–90
                                                                                                                                                                                                   family bathing, F 90
                                                                                                                                                                                                   popularity of, F 193
                                                                                                                                                                                                   traditional Finnish, F 24, F 117, F 197–201

                                                                                                                                                                                                Sears, William (Bill), F 42, F 111
                                                                                                                                                                                                Setala, Alpo, F 17, F 23
                                                                                                                                                                                                Seven Villages of Barnstable (Trowbridge), F 114, F 124, F 190
                                                                                                                                                                                                "Shark City," ,F 24, F 108, F 158
                                                                                                                                                                                                shellfishing, F 93–94, F 113, F 124, F 141
                                                                                                                                                                                                Simpson, Colin, F 117, F 118
                                                                                                                                                                                                sisu ("guts" or "grit"), F 114, F 117, F 185, F 193
                                                                                                                                                                                                "Slightly Salty" (Syrjala), F 19
                                                                                                                                                                                                social class
                                                                                                                                                                                                     in Finland, F 51–52

                                                                                                                                                                                                  socialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Finnish immigrants, F 18

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Society for the Commencement of Tranquility, F 62–63, F 112
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Soininen, Seppo, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                                    "Some of the History of Alexander Michelson as narrated to me by Emil Lundquist" (Atwood), F 85
                                                                                                                                                                                                    "St. Urho: Finnish-American and Finnish-Canadian Patron" (Vähämäki), F 179–182
                                                                                                                                                                                                    St. Urho legend, F 154, F 176–189
                                                                                                                                                                                                         cartoon, F 189
                                                                                                                                                                                                         menu, F 188

                                                                                                                                                                                                      "Steamy Affairs" (Dooley), F 197–201
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sundelin, Vaino, F 123
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                           American colonies, F 165–168
                                                                                                                                                                                                           rule of Finland by, F 128–129

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Syriala, Russell F., F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Syrjala, Anna, F 61
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Syrjala, Savele, F 23, F 116, F 174
                                                                                                                                                                                                             "Slightly Salty," ,F 19

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Syrjela, Jacob, F 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Syrjela, John, F 12

                                                                                                                                                                                                          T

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Temperance Hall (Raittius Haali), F 40, F 60, F 61, F 112, F 145, F 159
                                                                                                                                                                                                               photograph, F 64
                                                                                                                                                                                                               purchased by Apostolic Lutheran Church, F 63, F 78

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Temperance Society (Raittius Seura or Rauhan Alku Seura), F 8, F 10, F 15–16, F 23, F 40, F 62–63, F 112–113, F 145
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 establishment of, F 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 fines for use of alcohol, F 62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Finnish language and, F 63
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 recreational functions, F 41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 religious functions, F 40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 religious meetings held in, F 145–146
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 socializing effect of, F 123, F 145
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 socializing role of, F 63, F 123, F 193

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Three Centuries of a Cape Cod Town (Trayser), F 32, F 114
                                                                                                                                                                                                              tool sharpening, F 48
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trayser, Donald, F 32, F 114
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trowbridge, Catherine, F 114, F 124, F 190
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tuominen, Henry, F 31
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Turner, Ellen Ruska, F 116

                                                                                                                                                                                                              V

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vaananen, John, F 76
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vähämäki, Börje
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   "St. Urho: Finnish-American and Finnish-Canadian Patron," ,F 179–182

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Van Cleeff, Eugene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     "Finns on Cape Cod," ,F 11–13

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Viking Circle, The (Simpson), F 117
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Viliesis, Helmi, F 195, F 197
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  "Visit from St. Urho, A," ,F 183

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        W

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Walo, John, F 14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Walta, Otto, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wannie, T. Walter, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Weber, Bertha, F 38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        West Barnstable Brick Co.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Finnish immigrant employment at, F 35, F 109, F 138–139, F 143–144
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             work crew (photograph), F 102, F 103

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          West Barnstable Congregational Society, F 32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          West Barnstable Finnish Congregational Church
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               building, F 65–66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               dissolution of, F 66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               history of, F 65–66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               merger with West Parish Congregational Church, F 66

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            West Barnstable Grammar School, F 88
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            "West Barnstable Suomalaisten Lähetys Seurakunta (Finnish Congregational Church)" (Atwood), F 65–66
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            West Parish Meeting House (Congregational Church)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 establishment of, F 22, F 23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 merger with Finnish Congregational Church, F 66, F 159
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Paul Revere bell, F 23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 restoration of, F 23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      photograph, F 28, F 30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whelden Memorial Library
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Finnish history project, F 190

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wiinikainen, Mary (Syriala), F 61, F 112
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wiinikainen, Rosa Prittinen, F 15, F 24, F 35, F 118–119, F 123, F 190, F 197
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       "Immigration of Finns," ,F 33–34

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wiinikainen, Wayne, F 118–119
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wirtanen, Carl, F 125
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wirtanen, Edward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         biographical summary, F 82

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, Elmer, F 22, F 82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, Elvira, F 82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, Frank E., F 124–126
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, George, F 124, F 125
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, Jelma, F 142
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wirtanen, Martin, F 22, F 82, F 116
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Christmas traditions, F 25–26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           photograph, F 29

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wirtanen, Martin E., F 25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wirtanen, Phoebe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Christmas traditions, F 25–26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               photograph, F 29

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wirtanen, Richard, F 82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wirtanen, William, F 22, F 45–46, F 82
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wojdylak, Viola
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 photograph, F 156–157

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   employment of, F 139, F 143

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wuornos, Brunos, F 69, F70

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of the Page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Index Home